A sensor is a device that generates an output signal for sensing a physical phenomenon.
It is a device that perceives a specified measurement and converts it into a useful signal according to certain rules. For the sensor, the input can be divided into static quantity and dynamic quantity according to the input state. According to the relationship between output and input of each value under steady state, the static characteristics of the sensor can be obtained. The main indexes of the static characteristics of the sensor are linearity, hysteresis, repeatability, sensitivity and precision. The dynamic characteristic of the sensor is the response of the input to time change. Dynamic characteristics are often described in terms of transfer functions and other automatic control models.
(1) In the process of using information, sensors are the main way and means to obtain information in the natural and production fields. In modern industrial production especially in the process of automatic production, to use a variety of sensors to monitor and control the various parameters in the production process, make the equipment work in the normal state or the best state, and make the product to achieve the best quality.
(2) Sensors play a prominent role in the research of basic disciplines. It plays an important role in deepening the understanding of materials, exploring new energy, new materials and other extreme technology research, such as ultra-high temperature, ultra-low temperature, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high vacuum, ultra-strong magnetic field, ultra-weak magnetic field and so on.
(3) Sensors have long penetrated into industrial production, space development, ocean exploration, environmental protection and other extremely extensive fields.